A couple of days ago I visited Dendles Wood, Hawns, Dendles Waste and High House Waste with a few fellow Dartmoor enthusiasts. These places are near to Cornwood in the south of the moor. In the sunshine they appeared blissful, in reality it is a miracle that they still exist at all. If events had panned out differently they would now be a large commercial conifer plantation.
Conifer afforestation has long been a controversial issue on Dartmoor. The first plantings occurred around Brimpts, by the Dart in 1862 and following World War One the major plantations at Fernworthy and Bellever were commenced in 1920 and 1921 respectively.
After the Second World War Soussons was afforested between 1945 – 9. These major land use changes were high contested on Dartmoor and the fight against them was led by the Dartmoor Preservation Association. Matthew Kelly (2015), in his excellent ‘Quartz and Feldspar’ provides a detailed historic account – see pages 244 – 266.
Dendles Wood National Nature Reserve
It was partly through re-reading this account and then trawling the internet (particularly information from the DPA) that I have been able to piece together the troubled pasts of Dendles Wood, Hawns, Dendles Waste and High House Waste. The word ‘Waste’ is a south Dartmoor term for a New Take i.e. moorland that has been enclosed and is no longer Common Land.
In the 1950s and 1960s there were a number of efforts made to increase the area of conifers on Dartmoor. In some cases it was proposed that deciduous woodland (in many cases Ancient Woodlands) should be converted to conifers whilst in other places it was proposed that open moorland should be planted up.
In 1959 Wing Commander Cyril Wolrick Passy, a decorated World War Two Hurricane fighter pilot and the owner of the Blanchford Estate (which consisted of Dendles Wood, Hawns, Dendles Waste and High House Waste) proposed that it should planted up with conifers. Dendles Wood, an Ancient Woodland would be converted whilst the open moorland Wastes would be planted up.
This caused great controversy and protest (see Kelly p256), led by the Dartmoor and DPA campaigner Lady Sayer, it was debated in Whitehall and led to discussions around the future direction of the Forestry Commission.
Eventually permission was granted to allow planting on Hawns and Dendles Waste but permission was refused with respect to High House Waste. The land was acquired by the Economic Forestry Group and Hawns and Dendles Waste were ploughed and planted up in 1960.
The controversy continued and in 1961 the Economic Forestry Group offered to sell the entire site to Devon County Council. Legal complications meant that this failed but in 1964 High House Waste was acquired by the DPA and 1965 Dendles Wood was acquired by the Nature Conservancy (now Natural England).
Stream In Dendles Wood
The DPA appeared not to have a constitution which allowed them to acquire land so a Trust was set up to hold the land. It was originally their intention to pass the site onto the National Trust or a similar body. In 1980 the land was held by four Trustees of the DPA and the organisation decided to not pass on the land to another body.
In 1997 the Dartmoor National Park Authority acquired Hawns and Dendles Wastes following the clear felling and removal of all the conifers.
Dendles Wood in the background with High House Waste on the right and Hawns on the left
The plan since then has been to plant broadleaved trees within deer proof enclosures on the southern end of Hawns and the south east corner of Dendles Waste. At the northern end of Hawns and Dendles Waste it was proposed that the former conifer plantation should be allowed to revert back to moorland.
Moorland restoration – regenerating heather and bilberry
This is largely what has happened but it is also clear that the enormous funding cuts that the DNPA has suffered in recent years has meant that they haven’t be able to follow their plans as vigorously as they had originally intended.
Interestingly this has meant that the moorland restoration on Hawns and Dendles Waste has a feel of rewilding about it and as a result a very interesting and diverse set of habitats have developed. This area contrasts remarkably with the adjacent areas of sheep grazed moorland.
Dendles Wood (green), High House Waste (blue), Hawns and Dendles Waste (red), red hatched area = moorland restoration.
I don’t know if this area is being ecologically monitored (I can’t find anything on the DNPA website about Hawns and Dendles Wastes) but it would make a very interesting case study and demonstration site.
Dendles Wood, Hawns, Dendles and High House Wastes is now owned by Natural England, DNPA and the DPA. It is a very rich site for wildlife and it is all part of the South Dartmoor Special Area of Conservation (except for Hawns and Dendles Waste).
It might have been so different.
Enclosure Wall at High House Waste – the builders of this wall built around a hut circle settlement – thus the wiggly wall.
The area has open access except for Dendles Wood where a permit from Natural England is required.
If you wish to visit – be warned, the nearest parking is in Cornwood so it is a long old trek just to get to the area before you even start to explore.
One step backwards but two steps forward
Kelly M. (2016) Quartz and Feldspar. Revised edition. Vintage. London